Nanomaterials are often associated with unsustainable or harmful elements, such as rare or toxic metals in quantum dots, or suffer from the lack of reproducibility, which hinders significantly their exploitation. Furthermore, some of the 'hottest' carbon nanomaterials, such as graphene, lack essential functional characteristics, such as an electronic band-gap and suffer from a lack of scalability, which renders their applications for electronic devices limited at this current time. In this project, we propose to progress the fabrication of carbon nanomaterials to solve various outstanding challenges, through innovative nanoprocessing, leading to the development of electronically and optically active carbon nanostructures. The functional properties of the thermal evolved organic layer are dictated by the carbonization process. The transformation of the organic layer were monitored and investigated through complementary electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques.